Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
It is an assisted reproductive technology (ART) used to treat sperm-related infertility problems. ICSI is used to enhance the fertilization phase of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) by injecting a single sperm into a mature egg. The fertilized egg will be placed in a woman’s uterus or fallopian tube.
Sperm collection: If sperm cannot be collected by means of masturbation, they are surgically removed from a testicle through a small incision. If there is blockage, this method will be used will prevent sperm from being ejaculated or if there is any problem with sperm development. To screen for genetic problems that could affect offspring, experts recommend that men with little or no sperm in their semen (not due to a blockage) have genetic testing before they start ICSI.1
Ovulation and egg retrieval: To prepare for a process using your own eggs, you need to get daily shots and be sharply monitored for 2 weeks before the eggs are collected. At home, you or your partner injected with gonadotropin or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to stimulate your ovaries to produce multiple eggs. This is known as superovulation. After a week, doctor will check your blood estrogen levels and with the help of ultrasound to see if eggs are maturing in the follicles. During the second week, your dosage may change based on test results and ultrasound. After the development of follicles, you are given a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) shot to stimulate the follicles to mature.The mature eggs are collected 34 to 36 hours later. It is mostly done by ultrasound-guided needle aspiration and very rarely done by laparoscopy.
Sperm injection and transfer: A glass tool is used to hold an egg in place. A tiny glass tube is used to put one sperm into the egg. After culturing in the lab overnight, eggs are checked to see if they have been fertilized. After incubation, the eggs that have been successfully fertilized or have had 3 to 5 days to further develop are selected. More than one are placed in the uterus using a thin flexible tube (catheter) that is inserted through the cervix. Your doctor will recommend how many embryos to transfer, based on your age and other information about you. The other embryos may be frozen for future use.
Expectation after Treatment:
The shots, monitoring and procedures for In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) will be emotionally and physically demanding of the mother. Super ovulation with hormones requires regular blood tests, daily shots, and frequent monitoring by your doctor. Particular shots can be quite painful.
These procedures are done on an outpatient basis. They require only a short recovery time. Your doctor may advise you to avoid strenuous activities for the rest of the day.
Why ICSI Done?
It is used to treat severe male infertility, as when little or no sperm are ejaculated in the semen. Immature sperm collected from the testicles normally can’t be moved and are more likely to fertilize an egg through ICSI.